Carbon capture and storage (CCS) involves a group of technologies that can capture and permanently store the CO2 emissions produced from a range of industrial processes.

CCS uses proven technology and is already happening around the world. According to the Global CCS Institute, as of September 2022, there were 41 major CCS projects either operating or being built and 153 in various stages of development. Find out more about CCS projects around the world.

CCS involves three major steps: capturing CO2 at the source, compressing it for transportation and then injecting it deep underground into a storage site where it is permanently stored.

  • Capture: The separation of CO2 from other gases produced from energy production or other industrial processes such as production of cement, steel, fertiliser and chemicals.

  • Transport: Once separated, the CO2 is compressed and transported via pipelines, trucks, ships or other methods to a suitable site for geological storage.

  • Storage: CO2 is injected into a deep underground rock formation, usually at depths of more than one kilometre.

Because CCS can achieve significant CO2 emission reductions, it is considered a key option within the portfolio of approaches required to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. *


* Source: Global CCS Institute

CO2 injection process

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